Cleopatra VII Philopator

Cleopatra VII Philopator
(c. 69–30 BC)
   Egyptian queen. Daughter of Ptolemy XII and possibly Cleopatra VI Tryphaena. She succeeded her father alongside her younger brother and consort, Ptolemy XIII, with whom she soon fell out. Their civil war was interrupted by the arrival in Egypt of Iulius Caesar who soon sided with Cleopatra and defeated her brother’s forces in 47 BC during a battle in which he was killed. Cleopatra VII Philopator was installed as ruler of Egypt with her younger brother, Ptolemy XIV, as consort, but she had become Caesar’s mistress and claimed him as the father of her son, Ptolemy Caesarion. She was in Rome in 44 BC when Caesar was assassinated and hurriedly returned to Egypt. Her brother soon died and was replaced as ruling pharaohby her son as Ptolemy XV.
   Cleopatra VII Philopator formed an alliance with Marcus Antonius, who was in charge of the eastern Roman Empire, and bore him three children. She used her intimacy with Antonius to aggrandize Egypt to the detriment of other eastern states. Their relationship gave Antonius’s rival, Augustus, the opportunity to vilify him in Rome and declare war on Egypt as a threat to Rome. Egyptian forces were defeated at the battle of Actium in 31 BC and, after the fall of Alexandria in 30 BC, Cleopatra VII Philopator committed suicide rather than be taken captive to Rome.
Historical Dictionary Of Ancient Egypt by Morris L. Bierbrier

Ancient Egypt. A Reference Guide. . 2011.

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